A gemstone (also called a fine gem, jewel, precious stones, or semi-precious stones) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
However, certain rocks (such as lapis lazuli and opal) and occasionally organic materials that are not minerals (such as amber, jet, and pearl) are also used for jewelry and are therefore often considered to be gemstones as well.
Most gemstones are hard, but some soft minerals are used in jewelry because of their luster or other physical properties that have aesthetic value.
Rarity and notoriety are other characteristics that lend value to precious stones.
Emerald is a precious stone and a variety of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium or sometimes vanadium.
Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the Mohs scale. Most emeralds are highly included, so their toughness is classified as generally poor.
• Diamond Stones
Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic.
At room temperature and pressure, another solid form of carbon known as graphite is the chemically stable form of carbon, but diamond converts to it extremely slowly.
Diamond is one of the most precious stones and has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any natural material, properties that are used in major industrial applications such as cutting and polishing tools.
They are also the reason that diamond anvil cells can subject materials to pressures found deep in the Earth.
• Ruby Stone
A ruby is a pink-ish red to blood-red colored precious stones, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).
Ruby is one of the most popular traditional jewelry gems and is very durable.
Other varieties of gem-quality corundum are called sapphires. Ruby is one of the traditional cardinal gems, alongside amethyst, sapphire, emerald, and diamond.
The word ruby comes from ruber, Latin for red. The color of a ruby is due to the element chromium.
• Sapphire Stones
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, consisting of aluminium oxide (α-Al2O3) with trace amounts of elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, vanadium, or magnesium.
It is typically blue, but natural “fancy” sapphires also occur in yellow, purple, orange, and green colors; “parti sapphires” show two or more colors.
Red corundum stones also occur, but are called rubies not sapphires.
Pink-colored corundum may be classified either as ruby or sapphire depending on locale.
Commonly, natural sapphires are cut and polished into precious stones and worn in jewelry.
• Amethyst Stone
Amethyst, a semi precious stones, which is often used in jewelry and is the traditional birthstone for February.
Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz, Ancient Greeks wore amethyst and carved drinking vessels from it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication.
• Topaz Stones
Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2.
It is used as a precious stones in jewelry and other adornments. Common topaz in its natural state is colorless, though trace element impurities can make it pale blue or golden brown to yellow orange.
Topaz is often treated with heat or radiation to make it a deep blue, reddish-orange, pale green, pink, or purple.
A pearl is a hard, glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as fossil conulariids.
Just like the shell of a mollusk, a pearl is composed of calcium carbonate (mainly aragonite or a mixture of aragonite and calcite) in minute crystalline form, which has deposited in concentric layers.
The ideal pearl is perfectly round and smooth, but many other shapes, known as baroque pearls, can occur.
The finest quality of natural pearls have been highly valued as precious stones and objects of beauty for many centuries.
Because of this, pearl has become a metaphor for something rare, fine, admirable and valuable.
• Aquamarine Stone
Aquamarine is a pale-blue to light-green variety of beryl precious stones. The color of aquamarine can be changed by heat.
Aquamarine is a common precious stone, However, there is a rarer variant of aquamarine called maxixe which is deep blue in color, but its color can fade due to sunlight.
• Opal Stones
Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica (SiO2·nH2O); its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%.
Because of its amorphous character, it is classed as a mineraloid, unlike crystalline forms of silica, which are classed as minerals.
It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, marl, and basalt.
Tourmaline is a precious stones crystalline silicate mineral group in which boron is compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium.
• Garnets Stones
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as precious stones and abrasives.
All species of garnets possess similar physical properties and crystal forms, but differ in chemical composition.
The different species are pyrope, almandine, spessartine, grossular, uvarovite and andradite.
Moonstone, a precious stone which is a sodium potassium aluminium silicate of the feldspar group that displays a pearly and opalescent schiller. An alternative name is hecatolite.
Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl₆(PO₄)₄(OH)₈·4H₂O.
It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a precious stones and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue.
Agate is an ornamental precious stone consisting of a hard variety of chalcedony (quartz), typically banded in appearance.
The ornamental use of agate precious stones dates back to Ancient Greece in assorted jewelry and in the seal stones of Greek warriors.
• Peridot Stones
Peridot, sometimes called chrysolite, is gem-quality olivine and a silicate mineral with the formula of (Mg, Fe)₂SiO₄.
As peridot is a magnesium-rich variety of olivine, the formula approaches Mg₂SiO₄. Its green color is dependent on the iron contents within the structure of the gem.
• Citrine Stone
Citrine is a popular type of quartz crystal precious stones often used to in conjunction with feng shui to welcome abundance, prosperity, and positivity.
Natural citrine is quite rare, and most citrine is actually amethyst that has been heat-treated to alter its color.
Zircon is a precious stones mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates and is a source of the metal zirconium.
Its chemical name is zirconium(IV) silicate, and its corresponding chemical formula is ZrSiO₄.
• Tanzanite Stone
Tanzanite is the blue and violet variety of the mineral zoisite (a calcium aluminium hydroxyl sorosilicate), caused by small amounts of vanadium.
Tanzanite belongs to the epidote mineral group. Tanzanite is only found in Tanzania, in a very small mining area (approximately 7 km (4.3 mi) long and 2 km (1.2 mi) wide) near the Mererani Hills.
The precious stone was given the name ‘tanzanite’ by Tiffany & Co. after Tanzania, the country in which it was discovered.
• Lapis lazuli Stone
Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep-blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stones that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
• Apatite Stone
Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH⁻, F⁻ and Cl⁻ ions, respectively, in the crystal.
• Beryl Stone
Beryl is a precious mineral composed of beryllium aluminium silicate with the chemical formula Be₃Al₂Si₆O₁₈.
Well-known varieties of beryl include emerald and aquamarine. Naturally occurring, hexagonal crystals of beryl can be up to several meters in size, but terminated crystals are relatively rare.
• Jade Stone
Jade is a precious stone used as jewellery or for ornaments. It is typically green, although may be yellow or white. Jade can refer to either of two different silicate minerals: nephrite, or jadeite.
Jade is well known for its ornamental use in East Asian, South Asian, and Southeast Asian art.
• Fluorite Stone
Fluorite is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF₂. It belongs to the halide minerals.
It crystallizes in isometric cubic habit, although octahedral and more complex isometric forms are not uncommon.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch hardness comparison, defines value 4 as fluorite.
• Chrysoberyl Stone
The mineral or precious stone chrysoberyl is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl₂O₄.
The name chrysoberyl is derived from the Greek words χρυσός chrysos and βήρυλλος beryllos, meaning “a gold-white spar.
Above are our list of precious stones locations and semi precious stones in the world.
According to Source, some of this precious stones are listed as precious stones in the bible.